Securities or Capital Markets attorneys help companies raise the money they need to operate by representing issuers and underwriters in securities transactions, including IPOs, stock offerings, and debt offerings in public markets. Securities attorneys also counsel clients on corporate governance and how to comply with securities regulations. Some practitioners fold securities law into a general corporate practice while others specialize in the area.
Corporate law involves the formation, dissolution, and all other legal aspects of the administration of corporations. Typical duties of corporate lawyers include mergers, acquisitions, internal reorganization, or disputes between corporations and individuals concerning liability, patents, and compliance with state and federal law, as well as international accords. A legal professional whose sole client is a corporation is generally known as in-house counsel.
Intellectual Property law focuses on protecting the rights of inventors, authors, and businesses to their tangible and intangible creations, inventions and symbols. Legal professionals in this field are often experts in a particular domain, such as science, the arts, or an industry. For example, trademark or copyright attorneys manage the legal aspects of contracts, visual identity, brand names, or slogans. Technological advances, notably in digital reproduction and transmission, make this a dynamic field of law.
Banking and finance is a diverse type of law which involves the regulation of financial products and is primarily focused on loan transactions. The work of a finance lawyer ranges from advising on simple bank loans to companies to working on highly structured financing arrangements across multiple jurisdictions. Finance lawyers have to be very commercially minded and consider the business as well as legal implications of every deal.
Human rights law governs the obligations of States towards citizens and other individuals within their jurisdiction. Human rights law enshrines the highest of human ideals, that every human being has a set of rights and freedom. Public interest Litigation (PIL) means litigation filed in a court of law, for the protection of “Public Interest”, such as Pollution, Terrorism, Road safety, Constructional hazards etc. Any matter where the interest of public at large is affected can be redressed by filing a Public Interest Litigation in a court of law.
Energy law is the field of law concerned with creating, enforcing and challenging laws that regulate energy use. Laws exist that regulate the creation and harvesting of energy. There are laws that regulate taxation of energy use. Energy companies and the public alike must navigate energy laws as they relate to the sale, use and conservation of energy resources.
Tax law is a dynamic field that deals with domestic and international transactions. Because of the frequent modifications to local, state, and federal codes and the complexity of fiscal policy that guides these changes, experts in tax law engage in continuous education at greater rates than in many other fields of law. Apart from ensuring the legality of the levies on economic transactions, tax lawyers help clients reduce fiscal liabilities.
Property law governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in and relating to property. There are two types of property: real property (immovable property including land and buildings) and personal property (movable property such as jewellery and intangible property such as shares or intellectual property). Real property lawyers often advise on transactions involving freehold and leasehold property as well as various property rights such as the rights of tenants and rights of way over land.
(Private Clients only)
Labor law is concerned with the relations between workers and their employers on matters ranging from wages and compensation, through harassment, to discrimination based on gender, disability, or age. Labor law often involves collective bargaining and unions. Attorneys in this field may represent individual clients, a union, a government regulatory agency, or an employer.
Civil rights law aims to balance competing interests between institutions of government on the one hand and individuals or groups of individuals on the other. Lawyers in such practice may work on cases involving discrimination and unfair practices that infringe on rights and liberties such as expression, employment, housing, education, or other entitlements. Criminal law focuses on behaviors that are sanctioned under criminal code and defined as illegal. Prosecutors and Attorneys sanction illegal behavior, while criminal defense lawyers represent clients accused of criminal activity. Both prosecution and defense professionals deal with issues of individual liberty, basic rights, and responsibilities.
(Private Clients Only)
Environmental law concerns a multitude of statutes, treaties, regulations, and conventions based in state, federal, or transnational law. Legal professionals practicing in this field may represent government agencies, advocacy organizations, or individuals. Environmental lawyers often focus on cases involving natural resource management, the curbing of pollution, or disputes about land and littoral use. Public health components are increasingly common in the practice of environmental law.
Arbitration is a technique of resolving civil and commercial disputes outside of court. The parties present their case to a single arbitrator or a panel who then hands down a decision which the parties have agreed to be bound by. It is increasingly common to arbitrate international disputes in a pre-agreed jurisdiction instead of turning to litigation.
Accountability refers to the processes, norms, and structure that hold the population and public officials legally responsible for their actions and that impose sanctions if they violate the law. Accountability is essential if systemic threats to the rule of law are to be corrected. This involves ensuring there are consequences for criminal behavior. mechanisms to address impunity for past crimes; and horizontal accountability (state institutions overseeing the actions of one another) and vertical accountability (citizens overseeing the actions of the state). Without accountability, human rights will be denied, crime will flourish, and impunity for past conflict-related crimes will persist, undermining legitimacy and prospects for reconciliation. The concentration of power in any one branch, institution, or level of government often leads to abuse of power and corruption that horizontal and vertical accountability mechanisms can help prevent. Accountability also aims to mitigate against capture of justice institutions by political and economic spoilers that enables impunity, favoritism, and unequal application of the law.